Henry Andrew Francken and his Manuscripts
The one man who was most important in assisting Morin in spreading the degrees in the New World was a
naturalized French subject of Dutch origin named Henry Andrew Francken. Morin appointed him Deputy Grand Inspector
General as one of his first acts after returning to the West Indies. Francken worked closely with Morin and, in
1771, produced a manuscript book giving the rituals for the 15th through the 25th degrees. Francken produced at
least two more similar manuscripts, one in 1783 and another about 1786. The second and third of these manuscripts
included all the degrees from the 4th through the 25th.
A Loge de Parfaits d' Écosse was formed on 12 April 1764 at New Orleans, becoming the first high degree lodge on the
North American continent. Its public life, however, was short, as the Treaty of Paris (1763) ceded New Orleans to
Spain, and the Catholic Spanish crown had been historically hostile to Freemasonry. Documented Masonic activity
ceased for a time and did not re-appear publicly in New Orleans until the 1790s.
Francken travelled to New York in 1767 where he granted a Patent, dated 26 December 1767, for the formation of a Lodge of Perfection at Albany. This
marked the first time the Degrees of Perfection (the 4th through the 14th) were conferred in one of the thirteen
British colonies. This Patent, and the early minutes of the Lodge, are still extant and are in the archives of
Supreme Council, Northern Jurisdiction.
While in New York, Francken also communicated the degrees to Moses Michael Hays, a Jewish businessman, and
appointed him a Deputy Inspector General. In 1781, Hays made eight Deputy Inspectors General, four of whom were
later important in the establishment of Scottish Rite Freemasonry in South Carolina: Isaac Da Costa Sr., D.I.G. for
South Carolina; Abraham Forst, D.I.G. for Virginia; Joseph M. Myers, D.I.G. for Maryland; and Barend M. Spitzer,
D.I.G. for Georgia. Da Costa returned to Charleston, S.C., and established the "Sublime Grand Lodge of Perfection"
in February 1783. After Da Costa's death in November 1783, Hays appointed Myers as Da Costa's successor. Joined by
Forst and Spitzer, Myers created additional high degree bodies in Charleston and, by 1801, the Charleston bodies
were the only extant bodies of the Rite in North America.
1764 12 avril : Création de la Loge les " Parfaits d'Écosse
" à la Nouvelle Orléans - C'est le premier atelier de hauts grades sur le continent nord